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Open AccessReview

Mimicking the Kidney: A Key Role in Organ-on-Chip Development

by 1 and 1,2,3,*
Nanobioengineering Laboratory, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona 08028, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Madrid 28029, Spain
Department of Electronics, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nam-Trung Nguyen and Seyed Ali Mousavi Shaegh
Micromachines 2016, 7(7), 126;
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
Pharmaceutical drug screening and research into diseases call for significant improvement in the effectiveness of current in vitro models. Better models would reduce the likelihood of costly failures at later drug development stages, while limiting or possibly even avoiding the use of animal models. In this regard, promising advances have recently been made by the so-called “organ-on-chip” (OOC) technology. By combining cell culture with microfluidics, biomedical researchers have started to develop microengineered models of the functional units of human organs. With the capacity to mimic physiological microenvironments and vascular perfusion, OOC devices allow the reproduction of tissue- and organ-level functions. When considering drug testing, nephrotoxicity is a major cause of attrition during pre-clinical, clinical, and post-approval stages. Renal toxicity accounts for 19% of total dropouts during phase III drug evaluation—more than half the drugs abandoned because of safety concerns. Mimicking the functional unit of the kidney, namely the nephron, is therefore a crucial objective. Here we provide an extensive review of the studies focused on the development of a nephron-on-chip device. View Full-Text
Keywords: organ-on-chip; kidney; nephron-on-chip; disease model; drug discovery organ-on-chip; kidney; nephron-on-chip; disease model; drug discovery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paoli, R.; Samitier, J. Mimicking the Kidney: A Key Role in Organ-on-Chip Development. Micromachines 2016, 7, 126.

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