To reduce the influence of internal residual stress on the processing deformation of thin-walled hydrogen-resistant steel components, combined aging cryogenic and high-temperature treatment was used to eliminate the residual stress, and the effect of cryogenic process parameters on the initial residual stress of the specimens was compared and analyzed based on the contour method. X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy were used to research the mechanism of the effect of cryogenic treatment on the internal residual stress of the specimen. After forging, the internal residual stress distribution of the hydrogen-resistant steel specimens without aging was characterized by tensile stress on the core and compressive stress on both sides, with a stress amplitude of −350–270 MPa. After compound treatment of −130 °C for 10 h and 350 °C for 2 h, the internal residual stress distribution remained unchanged, and the stresses decreased to −150–100 MPa. The internal residual stresses were reduced by 57–63% compared with the untreated specimens. The cryogenic treatment did not cause phase transformation and carbide precipitation of the hydrogen-resistant steel material. Instead, grain refinement and dislocation density depletion were the main reasons for the reduction in internal residual stresses in the specimens.
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