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Article

Synthesis of Nanoscale Liposomes via Low-Cost Microfluidic Systems

1
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1E No. 19a-40, Bogotá DC 111711, Colombia
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1E No. 19a-40, Bogotá DC 111711, Colombia
3
School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Micromachines 2020, 11(12), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11121050
Received: 26 October 2020 / Revised: 24 November 2020 / Accepted: 24 November 2020 / Published: 28 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section A:Physics)
We describe the manufacture of low-cost microfluidic systems to produce nanoscale liposomes with highly uniform size distributions (i.e., low polydispersity indexes (PDI)) and acceptable colloidal stability. This was achieved by exploiting a Y-junction device followed by a serpentine micromixer geometry to facilitate the diffusion between the mixing phases (i.e., continuous and dispersed) via advective processes. Two different geometries were studied. In the first one, the microchannels were engraved with a laser cutting machine on a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheet and covered with another PMMA sheet to form a two-layer device. In the second one, microchannels were not engraved but through-hole cut on a PMMA sheet and encased by a top and a bottom PMMA sheet to form a three-layer device. The devices were tested out by putting in contact lipids dissolved in alcohol as the dispersed phase and water as the continuous phase to self-assemble the liposomes. By fixing the total flow rate (TFR) and varying the flow rate ratio (FRR), we obtained most liposomes with average hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 188 ± 61 to 1312 ± 373 nm and 0.30 ± 0.09 PDI values. Such liposomes were obtained by changing the FRR from 5:1 to 2:1. Our results approached those obtained by conventional bulk synthesis methods such as a thin hydration bilayer and freeze-thaw, which produced liposomes with diameters ranging from 200 ± 38 to 250 ± 38 nm and 0.30 ± 0.05 PDI values. The produced liposomes might find several potential applications in the biomedical field, particularly in encapsulation and drug delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: liposomes; microfluidic; low-cost liposomes; microfluidic; low-cost
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aranguren, A.; Torres, C.E.; Muñoz-Camargo, C.; Osma, J.F.; Cruz, J.C. Synthesis of Nanoscale Liposomes via Low-Cost Microfluidic Systems. Micromachines 2020, 11, 1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11121050

AMA Style

Aranguren A, Torres CE, Muñoz-Camargo C, Osma JF, Cruz JC. Synthesis of Nanoscale Liposomes via Low-Cost Microfluidic Systems. Micromachines. 2020; 11(12):1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11121050

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aranguren, Andres, Carlos E. Torres, Carolina Muñoz-Camargo, Johann F. Osma, and Juan C. Cruz 2020. "Synthesis of Nanoscale Liposomes via Low-Cost Microfluidic Systems" Micromachines 11, no. 12: 1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11121050

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