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Review

Ultrasonic Retinal Neuromodulation and Acoustic Retinal Prosthesis

by 1,2, 1, 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
Roski Eye Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
2
Ginsburg Institute for Biomedical Therapeutics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2020, 11(10), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11100929
Received: 17 September 2020 / Revised: 11 October 2020 / Accepted: 11 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nanofabrication for Retinal Implants)
Ultrasound is an emerging method for non-invasive neuromodulation. Studies in the past have demonstrated that ultrasound can reversibly activate and inhibit neural activities in the brain. Recent research shows the possibility of using ultrasound ranging from 0.5 to 43 MHz in acoustic frequency to activate the retinal neurons without causing detectable damages to the cells. This review recapitulates pilot studies that explored retinal responses to the ultrasound exposure, discusses the advantages and limitations of the ultrasonic stimulation, and offers an overview of engineering perspectives in developing an acoustic retinal prosthesis. For comparison, this article also presents studies in the ultrasonic stimulation of the visual cortex. Despite that, the summarized research is still in an early stage; ultrasonic retinal stimulation appears to be a viable technology that exhibits enormous therapeutic potential for non-invasive vision restoration. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuromodulation; neurostimulation; ultrasound; retina; visual restoration neuromodulation; neurostimulation; ultrasound; retina; visual restoration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lo, P.-A.; Huang, K.; Zhou, Q.; Humayun, M.S.; Yue, L. Ultrasonic Retinal Neuromodulation and Acoustic Retinal Prosthesis. Micromachines 2020, 11, 929. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11100929

AMA Style

Lo P-A, Huang K, Zhou Q, Humayun MS, Yue L. Ultrasonic Retinal Neuromodulation and Acoustic Retinal Prosthesis. Micromachines. 2020; 11(10):929. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11100929

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lo, Pei-An, Kyana Huang, Qifa Zhou, Mark S. Humayun, and Lan Yue. 2020. "Ultrasonic Retinal Neuromodulation and Acoustic Retinal Prosthesis" Micromachines 11, no. 10: 929. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11100929

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