Biooxidation of Ciguatoxins Leads to Species-Specific Toxin Profiles
AbstractCiguatoxins (CTXs) contaminate fish worldwide and cause the foodborne illness ciguatera. In the Pacific, these toxins are produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, which accumulates in fish through the food chain and undergoes oxidative modification, giving rise to numerous analogs. In this study, we examined the oxidation of CTXs in vitro with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis using reference toxins, and found that CTX4A, CTX4B, and CTX3C, which are produced by the alga, are oxidized to the analogs found in fish, namely CTX1B, 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B, 54-deoxyCTX1B, 2-hydroxyCTX3C, and 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C. This oxidation was catalyzed by human CYP3A4, fish liver S9 fractions, and microsomal fractions prepared from representative ciguateric fishes (Lutjanus bohar, L. monostigumus, and Oplegnathus punctatus). In addition, fish liver S9 fractions prepared from non-ciguateric fishes (L. gibbus and L. fulviflamma) in Okinawa also converted CTX4A and CTX4B to CTX1B, 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B in vitro. This is the first study to demonstrate the enzymatic oxidation of these toxins, and provides insight into the mechanism underlying the development of species-specific toxin profiles and the fate of these toxins in humans and fish. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
PDF-Document (PDF, 2185 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Ikehara, T.; Kuniyoshi, K.; Oshiro, N.; Yasumoto, T. Biooxidation of Ciguatoxins Leads to Species-Specific Toxin Profiles. Toxins 2017, 9, 205.
Ikehara T, Kuniyoshi K, Oshiro N, Yasumoto T. Biooxidation of Ciguatoxins Leads to Species-Specific Toxin Profiles. Toxins. 2017; 9(7):205.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Kuniyoshi, Kyoko; Oshiro, Naomasa; Yasumoto, Takeshi. 2017. "Biooxidation of Ciguatoxins Leads to Species-Specific Toxin Profiles." Toxins 9, no. 7: 205.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.