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Open AccessArticle

Responses of Microcystis Colonies of Different Sizes to Hydrogen Peroxide Stress

by Mixue Liu 1,2,†, Xiaoli Shi 1,*,†, Chao Chen 1,3, Li Yu 1 and Chuang Sun 4
1
State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
2
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637009, China
4
College of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agriculture University, Hefei 230036, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Miquel Lürling
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9100306
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 23 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
Microcystis blooms have become a ubiquitous phenomenon in freshwater ecosystems, and the size of Microcystis colonies varies widely throughout the year. In the present study, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was applied to test the effect of this algaecide on Microcystis colonies of different sizes and to evaluate the colonies' antioxidant strategy. The results showed that Microcystis populations collapsed under treatment with 5 mg/L H2O2 at colony sizes smaller than 25 μm. A dosage of 20 mg/L H2O2 was necessary to efficiently control Microcystis colonies larger than 25 μm. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of different colonies exhibited various strategies to mitigate oxidative stress. In small colonies, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was readily stimulated and operated with catalase (CAT) activity to eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS). In colonies larger than 25 μm, the antioxidant enzyme CAT and antioxidant substance glutathione (GSH) played major roles in mitigating oxidative stress at H2O2 concentrations below 20 mg/L. In addition, application of the algaecide led to the release of intracellular-microcystins (MCs), and oxidatively-driven MCs reached high concentrations when colony size was larger than 100 μm. Algaecide control measures should be implemented before the formation of large colonies to limit the algaecide dosage and MC release. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen peroxide; Microcystis; colony size; antioxidative response hydrogen peroxide; Microcystis; colony size; antioxidative response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, M.; Shi, X.; Chen, C.; Yu, L.; Sun, C. Responses of Microcystis Colonies of Different Sizes to Hydrogen Peroxide Stress. Toxins 2017, 9, 306.

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