Next Article in Journal
Evolution of the SpoIISABC Toxin-Antitoxin-Antitoxin System in Bacilli
Next Article in Special Issue
The Immunomodulator VacA Promotes Immune Tolerance and Persistent Helicobacter pylori Infection through Its Activities on T-Cells and Antigen-Presenting Cells
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Use of VacA as a Vaccine Antigen
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 182;

Relationship between vacA Types and Development of Gastroduodenal Diseases

Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-Machi, Yufu-City, Oita 879-5593, Japan
Department of Molecular Biology, 108 Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam
Department of Endoscopy, Cho Ray Hospital, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
Department of Medicine-Gastroenterology, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Timothy L. Cover
Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 29 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 / Published: 9 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuolating Toxin)
Full-Text   |   PDF [556 KB, uploaded 9 June 2016]   |  


The Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is a secreted pore-forming toxin and a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. While VacA is present in almost all strains, only some forms are toxigenic and pathogenic. While vacA and its genotypes are considered as markers of H. pylori-related diseases or disorders, the pathophysiological mechanisms of VacA and its genotypes remain controversial. This review outlines key findings of publications regarding vacA with emphasis on the relationship between vacA genotypes and the development of human disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: VacA genotypes; vacuolation; prolonged Helicobacter pylori infection; H. pylori-mediated diseases VacA genotypes; vacuolation; prolonged Helicobacter pylori infection; H. pylori-mediated diseases

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Thi Huyen Trang, T.; Thanh Binh, T.; Yamaoka, Y. Relationship between vacA Types and Development of Gastroduodenal Diseases. Toxins 2016, 8, 182.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top