Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of the Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of Cereulide from an Emetic Bacillus cereus Strain of Milk Origin
Next Article in Special Issue
Liquid Chromatography with a Fluorimetric Detection Method for Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Tetrodotoxin Based on a Porous Graphitic Carbon Column
Previous Article in Journal
AAU-Specific RNA Cleavage Mediated by MazF Toxin Endoribonuclease Conserved in Nitrosomonas europaea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Is qPCR a Reliable Indicator of Cyanotoxin Risk in Freshwater?
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 175;

Evaluation of the Impact of Mild Steaming and Heat Treatment on the Concentration of Okadaic Acid, Dinophysistoxin-2 and Dinophysistoxin-3 in Mussels

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Campus de Lugo, USC, Lugo 27002, Spain
Laboratorio CIFGA S.A., Plaza de Santo Domingo 20 5a planta, Lugo 27001, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose M. Eirin-Lopez
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
PDF [469 KB, uploaded 6 June 2016]


This study explores the effect of laboratory and industrial steaming on mussels with toxin concentrations above and below the legal limit. We used mild conditions for steaming, 100 °C for 5 min in industrial processing, and up to 20 min in small-scale laboratory steaming. Also, we studied the effect of heat on the toxin concentration of mussels obtained from two different locations and the effect of heat on the levels of dinophysistoxins 3 (DTX3) in both the mussel matrix and in pure form (7-O-palmitoyl okadaic ester and 7-O-palmytoleyl okadaic ester). The results show that the loss of water due to steaming was very small with a maximum of 9.5%, that the toxin content remained unchanged with no concentration effect or increase in toxicity, and that dinophysistoxins 3 was hydrolyzed or degraded to a certain extent under heat treatment. The use of liquid-certified matrix showed a 55% decrease of dinophysistoxins 3 after 10 min steaming, and a 50% reduction in total toxicity after treatment with an autoclave (121 °C for 20 min). View Full-Text
Keywords: steaming; dinophysistoxin; okadaic acid; mass spectrometry steaming; dinophysistoxin; okadaic acid; mass spectrometry

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez, I.; Alfonso, A.; Antelo, A.; Alvarez, M.; Botana, L.M. Evaluation of the Impact of Mild Steaming and Heat Treatment on the Concentration of Okadaic Acid, Dinophysistoxin-2 and Dinophysistoxin-3 in Mussels. Toxins 2016, 8, 175.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top