Next Article in Journal
Clinical Efficacy and Changes of Urothelial Dysfunction after Repeated Detrusor Botulinum Toxin A Injections in Chronic Spinal Cord-Injured Bladder
Next Article in Special Issue
Anti-Human Endoglin (hCD105) Immunotoxin—Containing Recombinant Single Chain Ribosome-Inactivating Protein Musarmin 1
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of OnabotulintoxinA on Habituation of Laser Evoked Responses in Chronic Migraine
Previous Article in Special Issue
Immunotoxin Therapies for the Treatment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Cancers
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 165;

CD133, Selectively Targeting the Root of Cancer

University of Minnesota Masonic Cancer Center, Section of Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55423, USA
Department for Hematology and Oncology, Medicine Department 2, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tomas Girbes and David J. Fitzgerald
Received: 20 April 2016 / Revised: 8 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 28 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Immunotoxins 2016)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1177 KB, uploaded 2 June 2016]   |  


Cancer stem cells (CSC) are capable of promoting tumor initiation and self-renewal, two important hallmarks of carcinoma formation. This population comprises a small percentage of the tumor mass and is highly resistant to chemotherapy, causing the most difficult problem in the field of cancer research, drug refractory relapse. Many CSC markers have been reported. One of the most promising and perhaps least ubiquitous is CD133, a membrane-bound pentaspan glycoprotein that is frequently expressed on CSC. There is evidence that directly targeting CD133 with biological drugs might be the most effective way to eliminate CSC. We have investigated two entirely unrelated, but highly effective approaches for selectively targeting CD133. The first involves using a special anti-CD133 single chain variable fragment (scFv) to deliver a catalytic toxin. The second utilizes this same scFv to deliver components of the immune system. In this review, we discuss the development and current status of these CD133 associated biological agents. Together, they show exceptional promise by specific and efficient CSC elimination. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer stem cell; CD133; relapse; BIKE; targeted therapies cancer stem cell; CD133; relapse; BIKE; targeted therapies

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schmohl, J.U.; Vallera, D.A. CD133, Selectively Targeting the Root of Cancer. Toxins 2016, 8, 165.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top