Next Article in Journal
CD133, Selectively Targeting the Root of Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Effective Botulinum Toxin Injection Guide for Treatment of Temporal Headache
Previous Article in Journal
Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland
Previous Article in Special Issue
Incobotulinum Toxin-A Improves Post-Surgical and Post-Radiation Pain in Cancer Patients
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 163;

Effects of OnabotulintoxinA on Habituation of Laser Evoked Responses in Chronic Migraine

Neurophysiopathology of Pain, SMBNOS Department, Policlinico General Hospital, Giovanni XXIII Building, Via Amendola 207 A 70124 Bari, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Bahman Jabbari and Flaminia Pavone
Received: 24 January 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Botulinum Toxins on Human Pain)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1824 KB, uploaded 25 May 2016]   |  


Onabotulintoxin A (BontA) is an efficacious preventive treatment for chronic migraine, though the specific mechanism of action is still under discussion. The study aims: (1) To evaluate pain processing modifications in chronic migraine patients (CM) under single BontA administration in pericranial muscles, by means of CO2 Laser Evoked Potentials (LEPs) obtained by the stimulation of the skin over the right frontal and trapezius injection sites and hand dorsum, in a double blind placebo controlled crossover design. (2) To correlate main LEPs findings with clinical outcome after one year of BontA treatment. Twenty refractory CM patients were included in the analysis. The LEPs were recorded in basal conditions and seven days after BontA (PREEMPT protocol) and saline solution injection. The N1, N2 and P2 amplitude and latencies and N2P2 habituation index were evaluated and correlated with the percent change of headache frequency after one year of toxin treatment. After seven days of BontA treatment, a normalization of the trigeminal habituation index was observed, which was correlated with the clinical outcome after one year of BontA therapy. Patients displaying trigeminal LEPs facilitation at T0 time showed a more efficient therapeutic outcome. Neurotoxin may exert a modulating effect on trigeminal nociception, normalizing central neurotransmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic migraine; neurotoxin mechanism; laser evoked potentials chronic migraine; neurotoxin mechanism; laser evoked potentials

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

De Tommaso, M.; Delussi, M.; Ricci, K.; Montemurno, A.; Carbone, I.; Vecchio, E. Effects of OnabotulintoxinA on Habituation of Laser Evoked Responses in Chronic Migraine. Toxins 2016, 8, 163.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top