Next Article in Journal
EGA Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile CDT, Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin
Previous Article in Journal
Structural Characterization of Humanized Nanobodies with Neutralizing Activity against the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-Hemolysin: Implications for a Potential Epitope of Toxin-Protective Antigen
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations?

1
Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
2
Békésy Laboratory of Neurobiology, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Meg Daly
Toxins 2016, 8(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8040097
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 26 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Cnidarian envenomations are an important public health problem, responsible for more deaths than shark attacks annually. For this reason, optimization of first-aid care is essential. According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, which supports the use of hot-water immersion of the sting area(s). However, ice packs are often recommended and used by emergency personnel. After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, we conclude that the majority of studies to date support the use of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: jellyfish; venom; sting; first aid; Cubozoa; Scyphozoa; Hydrozoa; hot-water immersion; ice packs jellyfish; venom; sting; first aid; Cubozoa; Scyphozoa; Hydrozoa; hot-water immersion; ice packs
MDPI and ACS Style

Wilcox, C.L.; Yanagihara, A.A. Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations? Toxins 2016, 8, 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8040097

AMA Style

Wilcox CL, Yanagihara AA. Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations? Toxins. 2016; 8(4):97. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8040097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wilcox, Christie L.; Yanagihara, Angel A. 2016. "Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations?" Toxins 8, no. 4: 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8040097

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop