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Toxins 2016, 8(4), 94;

Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects

Université de Brest, EA 3882 Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie Microbienne, ESIAB, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 26 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
PDF [3428 KB, uploaded 26 March 2016]


Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies of mycotoxin combination toxicity showed antagonist, additive or synergic effects depending on the tested species, cell model or mixture, and were not necessarily time- or dose-dependent. This review summarizes the findings on mycotoxins and their co-occurrence in various foods and feeds from all over the world as well as in vitro experimental data on their combined toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; foodstuffs; regulations; co-occurrence; combined toxicological effects mycotoxins; foodstuffs; regulations; co-occurrence; combined toxicological effects

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Smith, M.-C.; Madec, S.; Coton, E.; Hymery, N. Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects. Toxins 2016, 8, 94.

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