Next Article in Journal
Paulistine—The Functional Duality of a Wasp Venom Peptide Toxin
Next Article in Special Issue
Adverse Events of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection between Patients with Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis—Different Mechanisms of Action of Botox on Bladder Dysfunction?
Previous Article in Journal
Isolation and Pharmacological Characterization of α-Elapitoxin-Ot1a, a Short-Chain Postsynaptic Neurotoxin from the Venom of the Western Desert Taipan, Oxyuranus temporalis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Does Reduction of Number of Intradetrusor Injection Sites of aboBoNTA (Dysport®) Impact Efficacy and Safety in a Rat Model of Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity?
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2016, 8(3), 59;

Botulinum toxin A for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder

Department of Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
Department of Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hann-Chorng Kuo
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botulinum Toxin A on Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction)
Full-Text   |   PDF [236 KB, uploaded 29 February 2016]


The standard treatment for overactive bladder starts with patient education and behavior therapies, followed by antimuscarinic agents. For patients with urgency urinary incontinence refractory to antimuscarinic therapy, currently both American Urological Association (AUA) and European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines suggested that intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A should be offered. The mechanism of botulinum toxin A includes inhibition of vesicular release of neurotransmitters and the axonal expression of capsaicin and purinergic receptors in the suburothelium, as well as attenuation of central sensitization. Multiple randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrated that botulinum toxin A to be an effective treatment for patients with refractory idiopathic or neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The urinary incontinence episodes, maximum cystometric capacity, and maximum detrusor pressure were improved greater by botulinum toxin A compared to placebo. The adverse effects of botulinum toxin A, such as urinary retention and urinary tract infection, were primarily localized to the lower urinary tract. Therefore, botulinum toxin A offers an effective treatment option for patients with refractory overactive bladder. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum toxin A; overactive bladder; detrusor overactivity botulinum toxin A; overactive bladder; detrusor overactivity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hsieh, P.-F.; Chiu, H.-C.; Chen, K.-C.; Chang, C.-H.; Chou, E.C.-L. Botulinum toxin A for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder. Toxins 2016, 8, 59.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top