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Toxins 2016, 8(12), 360;

Snake Genome Sequencing: Results and Future Prospects

Institute of Biology, University of Leiden, Leiden 2300 RA, The Netherlands
Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
Department of Biosciences and Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Darwinweg 2, Leiden 2333 CR, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jay Fox and José María Gutiérrez
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snake Venom Metalloproteinases)
Full-Text   |   PDF [935 KB, uploaded 1 December 2016]   |  


Snake genome sequencing is in its infancy—very much behind the progress made in sequencing the genomes of humans, model organisms and pathogens relevant to biomedical research, and agricultural species. We provide here an overview of some of the snake genome projects in progress, and discuss the biological findings, with special emphasis on toxinology, from the small number of draft snake genomes already published. We discuss the future of snake genomics, pointing out that new sequencing technologies will help overcome the problem of repetitive sequences in assembling snake genomes. Genome sequences are also likely to be valuable in examining the clustering of toxin genes on the chromosomes, in designing recombinant antivenoms and in studying the epigenetic regulation of toxin gene expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: snake; genome; genomics; king cobra; reptile; Malayan pit viper snake; genome; genomics; king cobra; reptile; Malayan pit viper

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Kerkkamp, H.M.I.; Kini, R.M.; Pospelov, A.S.; Vonk, F.J.; Henkel, C.V.; Richardson, M.K. Snake Genome Sequencing: Results and Future Prospects. Toxins 2016, 8, 360.

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