Next Article in Journal
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Microcystin Variants and Relationships with Environmental Parameters in Lake Taihu, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Detection of N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisins B2 and B3 in Corn by High-Resolution LC-Orbitrap MS
Previous Article in Journal
Pharmacological Alternatives for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Wasp and Bee Venoms and Their Components as New Neuroactive Tools
Previous Article in Special Issue
Deoxynivalenol Impairs Weight Gain and Affects Markers of Gut Health after Low-Dose, Short-Term Exposure of Growing Pigs
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3210-3223;

Zearalenone in the Intestinal Tissues of Immature Gilts Exposed per os to Mycotoxins

Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn 10-719, Poland
Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, Poznań 60-625, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sven Dänicke
Received: 16 April 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [256 KB, uploaded 18 August 2015]


Zearalenone and its metabolites, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, demonstrate estradiol-like activity and disrupt physiological functions in animals. This article evaluates the carryover of zearalenone and its selected metabolites from the digesta to intestinal walls (along the entire intestines) in pre-pubertal gilts exposed to low doses of zearalenone over long periods of time. The term “carryover” describes the transfer of mycotoxins from feed to edible tissues, and it was used to assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure for consumers. The experimental gilts with body weight of up to 25 kg were per os administered zearalenone at a daily dose of 40 μg/kg BW (Group E, n = 18) or placebo (Group C, n = 21) over a period of 42 days. In the first weeks of exposure, the highest values of the carryover factor were noted in the duodenum and the jejunum. In animals receiving pure zearalenone, the presence of metabolites was not determined in intestinal tissues. In the last three weeks of the experiment, very high values of the carryover factor were observed in the duodenum and the descending colon. The results of the study indicate that in animals exposed to subclinical doses of zearalenone, the carryover factor could be determined by the distribution and expression of estrogen receptor beta. View Full-Text
Keywords: zearalenone; per os; metabolites; intestine; carryover; gilts zearalenone; per os; metabolites; intestine; carryover; gilts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zielonka, Ł.; Waśkiewicz, A.; Beszterda, M.; Kostecki, M.; Dąbrowski, M.; Obremski, K.; Goliński, P.; Gajęcki, M. Zearalenone in the Intestinal Tissues of Immature Gilts Exposed per os to Mycotoxins. Toxins 2015, 7, 3210-3223.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top