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Open AccessArticle

Acetylcholinesterase in Biofouling Species: Characterization and Mode of Action of Cyanobacteria-Derived Antifouling Agents

CIIMAR/CIMAR—Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, Porto P 4050-123, Portugal
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto P 4069-007, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John P. Berry
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 2739-2756;
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 5 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity and Toxicity in Marine Cyanobacteria)
Effective and ecofriendly antifouling (AF) compounds have been arising from naturally produced chemicals. The objective of this study is to use cyanobacteria-derived agents to investigate the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as an effect and/or mode of action of promising AF compounds, since AChE inhibitors were found to inhibit invertebrate larval settlement. To pursue this objective, in vitro quantification of AChE activity under the effect of several cyanobacterial strain extracts as potential AF agents was performed along with in vivo AF (anti-settlement) screening tests. Pre-characterization of different cholinesterases (ChEs) forms present in selected tissues of important biofouling species was performed to confirm the predominance of AChE, and an in vitro AF test using pure AChE activity was developed. Eighteen cyanobacteria strains were tested as source of potential AF and AChE inhibitor agents. Results showed effectiveness in selecting promising eco-friendly AF agents, allowing the understanding of the AF biochemical mode of action induced by different compounds. This study also highlights the potential of cyanobacteria as source of AF agents towards invertebrate macrofouling species. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifouling; biofouling; cyanobacteria; bioactivity; cholinesterases antifouling; biofouling; cyanobacteria; bioactivity; cholinesterases
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Almeida, J.R.; Freitas, M.; Cruz, S.; Leão, P.N.; Vasconcelos, V.; Cunha, I. Acetylcholinesterase in Biofouling Species: Characterization and Mode of Action of Cyanobacteria-Derived Antifouling Agents. Toxins 2015, 7, 2739-2756.

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