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Toxins 2015, 7(5), 1544-1555;

Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotypes Detected by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales LL57 2DG, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaohua He
Received: 29 March 2015 / Revised: 26 April 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Rapid Detection of Bacterial Toxins)
PDF [552 KB, uploaded 6 May 2015]


Botulinum neurotoxin is one of the deadliest biological toxins known to mankind and is able to cause the debilitating disease botulism. The rapid detection of the different serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin is essential for both diagnosis of botulism and identifying the presence of toxin in potential cases of terrorism and food contamination. The modes of action of botulinum neurotoxins are well-established in literature and differ for each serotype. The toxins are known to specifically cleave portions of the SNARE proteins SNAP-25 or VAMP; an interaction that can be monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This study presents a SNAP-25 and a VAMP biosensors for detecting the activity of five botulinum neurotoxin serotypes (A–E) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biosensors are able to detect concentrations of toxins as low as 25 fg/mL, in a short time-frame compared with the current standard methods of detection. Both biosensors show greater specificity for their compatible serotypes compared with incompatible serotypes and denatured toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; biosensor; SNAP-25; VAMP; botulinum neurotoxin electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; biosensor; SNAP-25; VAMP; botulinum neurotoxin

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Savage, A.C.; Buckley, N.; Halliwell, J.; Gwenin, C. Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotypes Detected by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Toxins 2015, 7, 1544-1555.

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