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Studies on the Bioavailability of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON Sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in Pigs Fed with Sodium Sulfite-Treated DON-Contaminated Maize
Open AccessArticle

Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys

1
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism, Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Tulln 3430, Austria
2
Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna 4060, Austria
3
Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology, Wiener Neustadt 2700, Austria
4
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Braunschweig 38116, Germany
5
Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Tulln 3430, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiujiang Yu
Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4706-4729; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins7114706
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Fusarium Toxins – Relevance for Human and Animal Health)
Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens), 51%–72% (roosters), and 131%–151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; biomarkers; HPLC-MS/MS; poultry; deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate; deoxynivalenol sulfonates mycotoxins; biomarkers; HPLC-MS/MS; poultry; deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate; deoxynivalenol sulfonates
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Schwartz-Zimmermann, H.E.; Fruhmann, P.; Dänicke, S.; Wiesenberger, G.; Caha, S.; Weber, J.; Berthiller, F. Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys. Toxins 2015, 7, 4706-4729.

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