Next Article in Journal
Main Ustilaginoidins and Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls
Previous Article in Journal
Cytotoxic Activity and Antiproliferative Effects of Crude Skin Secretion from Physalaemus nattereri (Anura: Leptodactylidae) on in vitro Melanoma Cells
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4006-4022;

Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Agriculture, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries, Freshwater Fishery Healthy Breeding Laboratory of Ministry of Agriculture, Huzhou 313001, Zhejiang, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis M. Botana
Received: 19 July 2015 / Revised: 18 September 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 8 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1605 KB, uploaded 8 October 2015]   |  


Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst) and catalase (cat) genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L) for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05) and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05). The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystin-LR; biotransformation; antioxidant enzyme; gene expression microcystin-LR; biotransformation; antioxidant enzyme; gene expression

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yuan, J.; Wang, X.; Gu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Z. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR. Toxins 2015, 7, 4006-4022.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top