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Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4023-4034;

Main Ustilaginoidins and Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls

College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100193, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laura Anfossi
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 27 September 2015 / Accepted: 6 October 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Rice false smut has become an increasingly serious fungal disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins previously isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. To investigate the main ustilaginoidins and their distribution in rice FSBs, five main bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), I (4) and C (5), were isolated and identified by NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as by comparison with the data in the literature. The rice FSBs at early, middle and late maturity stages were divided into their different parts and the contents of five main ustilaginoidins for each part were determined by HPLC analysis. The results revealed that the highest levels of ustilaginoidins were in late stage rice FSBs, followed by those at middle stage. Most ustilaginoidins, 96.4% of the total quantity, were distributed in the middle layer at early stage. However, ustilaginoidins were mainly distributed in the outer and middle layers at middle and late stages. Small amounts of ustilaginoidins A (1) and G (2) were found in the inner part of rice FSBs at each maturity stage. The contents of ustilaginoidins A (1) and G (2) without hydroxymethyl groups at C-2 and C-2’ of the γ-pyrone rings in rice FSBs were relatively high at early stage, while the contents of ustilaginoidins B (3), I (4), and C (5) with hydroxymethyl groups at C-2 or C-2’ were relatively high at late stage. View Full-Text
Keywords: ustilaginoidins; mycotoxin; phytotoxin; rice false smut balls; Villosiclava virens; Ustilaginoidea virens; HPLC ustilaginoidins; mycotoxin; phytotoxin; rice false smut balls; Villosiclava virens; Ustilaginoidea virens; HPLC

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Meng, J.; Sun, W.; Mao, Z.; Xu, D.; Wang, X.; Lu, S.; Lai, D.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, G. Main Ustilaginoidins and Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls. Toxins 2015, 7, 4023-4034.

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