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Open AccessReview

Structural Insights into Bacillus thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and Parasporin Toxins

by 1,2, 2, 1,* and 1,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2014, 6(9), 2732-2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins6092732
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 26 August 2014 / Accepted: 28 August 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins)
Since the first X-ray structure of Cry3Aa was revealed in 1991, numerous structures of B. thuringiensis toxins have been determined and published. In recent years, functional studies on the mode of action and resistance mechanism have been proposed, which notably promoted the developments of biological insecticides and insect-resistant transgenic crops. With the exploration of known pore-forming toxins (PFTs) structures, similarities between PFTs and B. thuringiensis toxins have provided great insights into receptor binding interactions and conformational changes from water-soluble to membrane pore-forming state of B. thuringiensis toxins. This review mainly focuses on the latest discoveries of the toxin working mechanism, with the emphasis on structural related progress. Based on the structural features, B. thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and parasporin toxins could be divided into three categories: three-domain type α-PFTs, Cyt toxin type β-PFTs and aerolysin type β-PFTs. Structures from each group are elucidated and discussed in relation to the latest data, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis; Cry toxin; Cyt toxin; parasporin; pore-forming toxins Bacillus thuringiensis; Cry toxin; Cyt toxin; parasporin; pore-forming toxins
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Xu, C.; Wang, B.-C.; Yu, Z.; Sun, M. Structural Insights into Bacillus thuringiensis Cry, Cyt and Parasporin Toxins. Toxins 2014, 6, 2732-2770.

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