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Open AccessReview

Engineering Venom’s Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Fragments and Its Therapeutic Potential

Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR MNHN-CNRS 7245, 12 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
Université de Tours—INRA, UMR 1282, Faculté de Pharmacie, 31 Avenue Monge, 37200 Tours Cedex, France
Université Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, IPSIT, 5 rue J.-B. Clément, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, France
Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Department of Zoology Islamia College University, Peshawar 25000, Khyber Paktunkhwa, Pakistan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Laboratorio de Imunoquimica, Departamento de Patologia Basica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba CEP 81531-980, PR, Brazil.
Toxins 2014, 6(8), 2541-2567;
Received: 4 June 2014 / Revised: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivenom and Venom Therapeutics)
PDF [4302 KB, uploaded 25 August 2014]


Serum therapy remains the only specific treatment against envenoming, but anti-venoms are still prepared by fragmentation of polyclonal antibodies isolated from hyper-immunized horse serum. Most of these anti-venoms are considered to be efficient, but their production is tedious, and their use may be associated with adverse effects. Recombinant antibodies and smaller functional units are now emerging as credible alternatives and constitute a source of still unexploited biomolecules capable of neutralizing venoms. This review will be a walk through the technologies that have recently been applied leading to novel antibody formats with better properties in terms of homogeneity, specific activity and possible safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: scorpion stings; snakebite; antivenom; serum therapy; antibody; scFv; diabody; nanobody scorpion stings; snakebite; antivenom; serum therapy; antibody; scFv; diabody; nanobody

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Alvarenga, L.M.; Zahid, M.; Tommaso, A.D.; Juste, M.O.; Aubrey, N.; Billiald, P.; Muzard, J. Engineering Venom’s Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Fragments and Its Therapeutic Potential. Toxins 2014, 6, 2541-2567.

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