The natural food contaminants, mycotoxins, are regarded as an important risk factor for human and animal health, as up to 25% of the world’s crop production may be contaminated. The Fusarium
genus produces large quantities of fusariotoxins, among which the trichothecenes are considered as a ubiquitous problem worldwide. The gastrointestinal tract is the first physiological barrier against food contaminants, as well as the first target for these toxicants. An increasing number of studies suggest that intestinal epithelial cells are targets for deoxynivalenol (DON) and other Type B trichothecenes (TCTB). In humans, various adverse digestive symptoms are observed on acute exposure, and in animals, these toxins induce pathological lesions, including necrosis of the intestinal epithelium. They affect the integrity of the intestinal epithelium through alterations in cell morphology and differentiation and in the barrier function. Moreover, DON and TCTB modulate the activity of intestinal epithelium in its role in immune responsiveness. TCTB affect cytokine production by intestinal or immune cells and are supposed to interfere with the cross-talk between epithelial cells and other intestinal immune cells. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the effects of DON and other TCTB on the intestine.