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Toxins 2014, 6(11), 3129-3143;

Rapid Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Durum Wheat by FT-NIR Spectroscopy

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy (ISPA-CNR), Via G. Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 25 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used to develop quantitative and classification models for the prediction of deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in durum wheat samples. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to determine DON in wheat samples in the range of <50–16,000 µg/kg DON. The model displayed a large root mean square error of prediction value (1,977 µg/kg) as compared to the EU maximum limit for DON in unprocessed durum wheat (i.e., 1,750 µg/kg), thus making the PLS approach unsuitable for quantitative prediction of DON in durum wheat. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was successfully used to differentiate wheat samples based on their DON content. A first approach used LDA to group wheat samples into three classes: A (DON ≤ 1,000 µg/kg), B (1,000 < DON ≤ 2,500 µg/kg), and C (DON > 2,500 µg/kg) (LDA I). A second approach was used to discriminate highly contaminated wheat samples based on three different cut-off limits, namely 1,000 (LDA II), 1,200 (LDA III) and 1,400 µg/kg DON (LDA IV). The overall classification and false compliant rates for the three models were 75%–90% and 3%–7%, respectively, with model LDA IV using a cut-off of 1,400 µg/kg fulfilling the requirement of the European official guidelines for screening methods. These findings confirmed the suitability of FT-NIR to screen a large number of wheat samples for DON contamination and to verify the compliance with EU regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; FT-NIR; rapid method; wheat; LDA; PLS deoxynivalenol; FT-NIR; rapid method; wheat; LDA; PLS

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De Girolamo, A.; Cervellieri, S.; Visconti, A.; Pascale, M. Rapid Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Durum Wheat by FT-NIR Spectroscopy. Toxins 2014, 6, 3129-3143.

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