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Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON)

Man-Society-Environment, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, Basel CH-4051, Switzerland
GMA Society/Association for Marine Aquaculture Ltd., Hafentörn 3, Büsum D-25761, Germany
Christian Albrechts-University of Kiel, Institute for Animal Breeding and Husbandry, Olshausestr. 40, Kiel 24098, Germany
Forest Sciences Centre of Catalonia (CTFC), Pujada del Seminari s/n, Solsona E-25280, Spain
Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 310, Berlin D-12587, Germany
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, CW 405 Biological Sciences Building, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 756-778;
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 3 February 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver damage; oxidative stress; nutrient allocation; aquaculture liver damage; oxidative stress; nutrient allocation; aquaculture
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Pietsch, C.; Schulz, C.; Rovira, P.; Kloas, W.; Burkhardt-Holm, P. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON). Toxins 2014, 6, 756-778.

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