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Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection

1
Mass Spectrometry Research Centre (MSRC) and PROTEOBIO Research Groups, Department of Chemistry, Cork Institute of Technology, Rossa Avenue, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India
3
Nanotechnology Group, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 693-755; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins6020693
Received: 20 November 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a naturally occurring toxin that has been responsible for human intoxications and fatalities. Its usual route of toxicity is via the ingestion of contaminated puffer fish which are a culinary delicacy, especially in Japan. TTX was believed to be confined to regions of South East Asia, but recent studies have demonstrated that the toxin has spread to regions in the Pacific and the Mediterranean. There is no known antidote to TTX which is a powerful sodium channel inhibitor. This review aims to collect pertinent information available to date on TTX and its analogues with a special emphasis on the structure, aetiology, distribution, effects and the analytical methods employed for its detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; TTX; TTX analogues; chemistry; toxicity; source; distribution; detection tetrodotoxin; TTX; TTX analogues; chemistry; toxicity; source; distribution; detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bane, V.; Lehane, M.; Dikshit, M.; O'Riordan, A.; Furey, A. Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection. Toxins 2014, 6, 693-755. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins6020693

AMA Style

Bane V, Lehane M, Dikshit M, O'Riordan A, Furey A. Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection. Toxins. 2014; 6(2):693-755. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins6020693

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bane, Vaishali, Mary Lehane, Madhurima Dikshit, Alan O'Riordan, and Ambrose Furey. 2014. "Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection" Toxins 6, no. 2: 693-755. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins6020693

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