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Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection

Mass Spectrometry Research Centre (MSRC) and PROTEOBIO Research Groups, Department of Chemistry, Cork Institute of Technology, Rossa Avenue, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland
Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India
Nanotechnology Group, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 693-755;
Received: 20 November 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
PDF [945 KB, uploaded 21 February 2014]


Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a naturally occurring toxin that has been responsible for human intoxications and fatalities. Its usual route of toxicity is via the ingestion of contaminated puffer fish which are a culinary delicacy, especially in Japan. TTX was believed to be confined to regions of South East Asia, but recent studies have demonstrated that the toxin has spread to regions in the Pacific and the Mediterranean. There is no known antidote to TTX which is a powerful sodium channel inhibitor. This review aims to collect pertinent information available to date on TTX and its analogues with a special emphasis on the structure, aetiology, distribution, effects and the analytical methods employed for its detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; TTX; TTX analogues; chemistry; toxicity; source; distribution; detection tetrodotoxin; TTX; TTX analogues; chemistry; toxicity; source; distribution; detection

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Bane, V.; Lehane, M.; Dikshit, M.; O'Riordan, A.; Furey, A. Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection. Toxins 2014, 6, 693-755.

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