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In Vitro Glucuronidation of Ochratoxin A by Rat Liver Microsomes

Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1000 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403, China
Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (CODA-CERVA), Unit of Toxins and Natural Components, Leuvensesteenweg 17, Tervuren B-3080, Belgium
Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, Ghent B-9000, Belgium
Laboratory of Chemical Analysis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, Merelbeke B-9820, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2671-2685;
Received: 29 October 2013 / Revised: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Ochratoxins Research)
PDF [959 KB, uploaded 18 December 2013]


Ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most toxic mycotoxins, can contaminate a wide range of food and feedstuff. To date, the data on its conjugates via glucuronidation request clarification and consolidation. In the present study, the combined approaches of ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), UHPLC-Orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography-multiple stage mass spectrometry (LC-MSn) were utilized to investigate the metabolic profile of OTA in rat liver microsomes. Three conjugated products of OTA corresponding to amino-, phenol- and acyl-glucuronides were identified, and the related structures were confirmed by hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase. Moreover, OTA methyl ester, OTα and OTα-glucuronide were also found in the reaction solution. Based on these results, an in vitro metabolic pathway of OTA has been proposed for the first time. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; glucuronidation; metabolic pathway; rat liver microsomes; Orbitrap ochratoxin A; glucuronidation; metabolic pathway; rat liver microsomes; Orbitrap

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Han, Z.; Tangni, E.K.; Di Mavungu, J.D.; Vanhaecke, L.; De Saeger, S.; Wu, A.; Callebaut, A. In Vitro Glucuronidation of Ochratoxin A by Rat Liver Microsomes. Toxins 2013, 5, 2671-2685.

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