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Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA
Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
Department of Food Engineering, College of Agriculture, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras 46060, Turkey
USDA-ARS, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Harris Hall, Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2013; in revised form: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in wheat that is infected with Fusarium fungus. DON may also be converted to a type of “masked mycotoxin”, named deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G), as a result of detoxification of the plant. In this study, DON and D3G were measured using gas chromatographic (GC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in wheat samples collected during 2011 and 2012 in the USA. Results indicate that the growing region had a significant effect on the DON and D3G (p < 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between both methods (GC and LC-MS) used for determination of DON content. DON showed a significant and positive correlation with D3G during 2011. Overall, DON production had an effect on D3G content and kernel damage, and was dependent on environmental conditions during Fusarium infection.
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; wheat; USA
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Simsek, S.; Ovando-Martínez, M.; Ozsisli, B.; Whitney, K.; Ohm, J.-B. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA. Toxins 2013, 5, 2656-2670.
Simsek S, Ovando-Martínez M, Ozsisli B, Whitney K, Ohm J-B. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA. Toxins. 2013; 5(12):2656-2670.
Simsek, Senay; Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Ozsisli, Bahri; Whitney, Kristin; Ohm, Jae-Bom. 2013. "Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA." Toxins 5, no. 12: 2656-2670.