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A Comparative Analysis of Methods (LC-MS/MS, LC-MS and Rapid Test Kits) for the Determination of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Oysters, Mussels and Pipis
Article

Sub-Acute Feeding Study of Saxitoxin to Mice Confirms the Effectiveness of Current Regulatory Limits for Paralytic Shellfish Toxins

1
AgResearch Ltd. Ruakura Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
2
Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand
3
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
4
Ministry for Primary Industries–Manatu Ahu Matua, P.O. Box 2526, Wellington 6021, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090627
Received: 6 August 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 5 September 2021 / Published: 7 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins from Harmful Algae and Seafood Safety)
Regulatory limits for shellfish toxins are required to protect human health. Often these limits are set using only acute toxicity data, which is significant, as in some communities, shellfish makes up a large proportion of their daily diet and can be contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) for several months. In the current study, feeding protocols were developed to mimic human feeding behaviour and diets containing three dose rates of saxitoxin dihydrochloride (STX.2HCl) were fed to mice for 21 days. This yielded STX.2HCl dose rates of up to 730 µg/kg bw/day with no effects on food consumption, growth, blood pressure, heart rate, motor coordination, grip strength, blood chemistry, haematology, organ weights or tissue histology. Using the 100-fold safety factor to extrapolate from animals to humans yields a dose rate of 7.3 µg/kg bw/day, which is well above the current acute reference dose (ARfD) of 0.5 µg STX.2HCl eq/kg bw proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Furthermore, to reach the dose rate of 7.3 µg/kg bw, a 60 or 70 kg human would have to consume 540 or 630 g of shellfish contaminated with PSTs at the current regulatory limit (800 µg/kg shellfish flesh), respectively. The current regulatory limit for PSTs therefore seems appropriate. View Full-Text
Keywords: saxitoxin; feeding study; toxicology; paralytic shellfish toxins saxitoxin; feeding study; toxicology; paralytic shellfish toxins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Finch, S.C.; Webb, N.G.; Boundy, M.J.; Harwood, D.T.; Munday, J.S.; Sprosen, J.M.; Cave, V.M.; Broadhurst, R.B.; Nicolas, J. Sub-Acute Feeding Study of Saxitoxin to Mice Confirms the Effectiveness of Current Regulatory Limits for Paralytic Shellfish Toxins. Toxins 2021, 13, 627. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090627

AMA Style

Finch SC, Webb NG, Boundy MJ, Harwood DT, Munday JS, Sprosen JM, Cave VM, Broadhurst RB, Nicolas J. Sub-Acute Feeding Study of Saxitoxin to Mice Confirms the Effectiveness of Current Regulatory Limits for Paralytic Shellfish Toxins. Toxins. 2021; 13(9):627. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090627

Chicago/Turabian Style

Finch, Sarah C., Nicola G. Webb, Michael J. Boundy, D. T. Harwood, John S. Munday, Jan M. Sprosen, Vanessa M. Cave, Ric B. Broadhurst, and Jeane Nicolas. 2021. "Sub-Acute Feeding Study of Saxitoxin to Mice Confirms the Effectiveness of Current Regulatory Limits for Paralytic Shellfish Toxins" Toxins 13, no. 9: 627. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090627

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