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Article

Update of the Planktonic Diatom Genus Pseudo-nitzschia in Aotearoa New Zealand Coastal Waters: Genetic Diversity and Toxin Production

1
Cawthron Institute, Nelson 7010, New Zealand
2
Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34134, Turkey
3
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA
4
School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090637
Received: 30 July 2021 / Revised: 31 August 2021 / Accepted: 1 September 2021 / Published: 10 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins from Harmful Algae and Seafood Safety)
Domoic acid (DA) is produced by almost half of the species belonging to the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia and causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). It is, therefore, important to investigate the diversity and toxin production of Pseudo-nitzschia species for ASP risk assessments. Between 2018 and 2020, seawater samples were collected from various sites around Aotearoa New Zealand, and 130 clonal isolates of Pseudo-nitzschia were established. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of partial large subunit ribosomal DNA and/or internal transcribed spacer regions revealed that the isolates were divided into 14 species (Pseudo-nitzschia americana, Pseudo-nitzschia arenysensis, Pseudo-nitzschia australis, Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, Pseudo-nitzschia cuspidata, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta, Pseudo-nitzschia galaxiae, Pseudo-nitzschia hasleana, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, Pseudo-nitzschia plurisecta, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, and Pseudo-nitzschia cf. subpacifica). The P. delicatissima and P. hasleana strains were further divided into two clades/subclades (I and II). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess the production of DA and DA isomers by 73 representative strains. The analyses revealed that two (P. australis and P. multiseries) of the 14 species produced DA as a primary analogue, along with several DA isomers. This study is the first geographical distribution record of P. arenysensis, P.cuspidata, P. galaxiae, and P. hasleana in New Zealand coastal waters. View Full-Text
Keywords: amnesic shellfish poisoning; domoic acid; geographical distribution; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; molecular phylogenetic analysis; Pacific Ocean; phytoplankton amnesic shellfish poisoning; domoic acid; geographical distribution; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; molecular phylogenetic analysis; Pacific Ocean; phytoplankton
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nishimura, T.; Murray, J.S.; Boundy, M.J.; Balci, M.; Bowers, H.A.; Smith, K.F.; Harwood, D.T.; Rhodes, L.L. Update of the Planktonic Diatom Genus Pseudo-nitzschia in Aotearoa New Zealand Coastal Waters: Genetic Diversity and Toxin Production. Toxins 2021, 13, 637. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090637

AMA Style

Nishimura T, Murray JS, Boundy MJ, Balci M, Bowers HA, Smith KF, Harwood DT, Rhodes LL. Update of the Planktonic Diatom Genus Pseudo-nitzschia in Aotearoa New Zealand Coastal Waters: Genetic Diversity and Toxin Production. Toxins. 2021; 13(9):637. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090637

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nishimura, Tomohiro, J. S. Murray, Michael J. Boundy, Muharrem Balci, Holly A. Bowers, Kirsty F. Smith, D. T. Harwood, and Lesley L. Rhodes. 2021. "Update of the Planktonic Diatom Genus Pseudo-nitzschia in Aotearoa New Zealand Coastal Waters: Genetic Diversity and Toxin Production" Toxins 13, no. 9: 637. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090637

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