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Article

Characterization and Toxicity of Crude Toxins Produced by Cordyceps fumosorosea against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Aphis craccivora (Koch)

by 1,2,†, 1,2,†, 1,2, 3 and 1,2,*
1
Key Laboratory of Bio-Pesticide Innovation and Application, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Biological Control, Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
3
Independent Science Advisor, York YO10 5AQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030220
Received: 10 February 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Cordyceps fumosorosea, an insect pathogenic fungus, produces different toxins/secondary metabolites which can act as pest control agents. This study reports the extraction and characterization of crude mycelial extracts of C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 along with their bio-efficacy against Bemisia tabaci and Aphis craccivora. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometery and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 extracts showed the presence of five major compounds—Trichodermin, 5-Methylmellein, Brevianamide F, Enniatin and Beauvericin—which all may potentially be involved in insecticidal activity. The HPLC analysis of C. fumosorosea mycelial extracts and Beauvericin standard showed similar chromatographic peaks, with the content of Beauvericin in the crude toxin being calculated as 0.66 mg/ml. The median lethal concentrations of C. fumosorosea mycelial extracts towards first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs of A. craccivora were 46.35, 54.55, 68.94, and 81.92 µg/mL, respectively. The median lethal concentrations of C. fumosorosea mycelial extracts towards first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs of B. tabaci were 62.67, 72.84, 77.40, and 94.40 µg/mL, respectively. Our results demonstrate that bioactive compounds produced by C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 have insecticidal properties and could, therefore, be developed into biopesticides for the management of B. tabaci and A. craccivora. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological control; Cordyceps fumosorosea-SP502; toxin; whitefly; aphids; toxicity biological control; Cordyceps fumosorosea-SP502; toxin; whitefly; aphids; toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, J.; Yang, B.; Xu, J.; Cuthbertson, A.G.S.; Ali, S. Characterization and Toxicity of Crude Toxins Produced by Cordyceps fumosorosea against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Aphis craccivora (Koch). Toxins 2021, 13, 220. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030220

AMA Style

Wu J, Yang B, Xu J, Cuthbertson AGS, Ali S. Characterization and Toxicity of Crude Toxins Produced by Cordyceps fumosorosea against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Aphis craccivora (Koch). Toxins. 2021; 13(3):220. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030220

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Jianhui; Yang, Bo; Xu, Jing; Cuthbertson, Andrew G.S.; Ali, Shaukat. 2021. "Characterization and Toxicity of Crude Toxins Produced by Cordyceps fumosorosea against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Aphis craccivora (Koch)" Toxins 13, no. 3: 220. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030220

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