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Open AccessArticle

Assessing Mixture Effects of Cereulide and Deoxynivalenol on Intestinal Barrier Integrity and Uptake in Differentiated Human Caco-2 Cells

1
Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 38, 1090 Vienna, Austria
2
Institute of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
3
Core Facility Multimodal Imaging, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 38, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030189
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 March 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
The human intestine is regularly exposed to ingested food contaminants, such as fungal and bacterial toxins, which have been described to co-occur in a mixed diet. Thus, it is of utmost importance to understand possible interactions between contaminants of different origin. Hence, we investigated the single and combined effects of one of the most abundant mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON; 0.1 to 10 µg/mL), and the bacterial toxin cereulide (CER; 1 to 100 ng/mL) on differentiated human Caco-2 (C2BBe1) cells cultured in a transwell system. We tested the capacity of the two toxins to alter the intestinal integrity and further investigated the uptake of both compounds and the formation of selected DON metabolites. CER alone (10 and 100 ng/mL) and in combination with DON (10 ng/mL CER with 1 µg/mL DON) was found to alter the barrier function by increasing the transepithelial electrical resistance and the expression of the tight junction protein claudin-4. For the first time, DON-3-sulfate was identified as a metabolite of human intestinal cells in vitro. Moreover, co-incubation of CER and DON led to an altered ratio between DON and DON-3-sulfate. Hence, we conclude that co-exposure to CER and DON may alter the intestinal barrier function and biotransformation of intestinal cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus cereus; Fusarium; LC-MS/MS; paracellular passage; intestinal epithelium; food safety; bioavailability Bacillus cereus; Fusarium; LC-MS/MS; paracellular passage; intestinal epithelium; food safety; bioavailability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beisl, J.; Varga, E.; Braun, D.; Warth, B.; Ehling-Schulz, M.; Del Favero, G.; Marko, D. Assessing Mixture Effects of Cereulide and Deoxynivalenol on Intestinal Barrier Integrity and Uptake in Differentiated Human Caco-2 Cells. Toxins 2021, 13, 189. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030189

AMA Style

Beisl J, Varga E, Braun D, Warth B, Ehling-Schulz M, Del Favero G, Marko D. Assessing Mixture Effects of Cereulide and Deoxynivalenol on Intestinal Barrier Integrity and Uptake in Differentiated Human Caco-2 Cells. Toxins. 2021; 13(3):189. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030189

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beisl, Julia; Varga, Elisabeth; Braun, Dominik; Warth, Benedikt; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Del Favero, Giorgia; Marko, Doris. 2021. "Assessing Mixture Effects of Cereulide and Deoxynivalenol on Intestinal Barrier Integrity and Uptake in Differentiated Human Caco-2 Cells" Toxins 13, no. 3: 189. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030189

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