Next Article in Journal
Mycotoxin Removal by Lactobacillus spp. and Their Application in Animal Liquid Feed
Previous Article in Journal
Wound Infections from Taiwan Cobra (Naja atra) Bites: Determining Bacteriology, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and the Use of Antibiotics-A Cobra BITE Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mitigation Effects of Bentonite and Yeast Cell Wall Binders on AFB1, DON, and OTA Induced Changes in Laying Hen Performance, Egg Quality, and Health
Open AccessArticle

Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin M1 Induce Compromised Intestinal Integrity through Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

by 1,2,3,4,†, 1,2,3,4,†, 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4 and 1,2,3,4,*
1
Key Laboratory of Quality & Safety Control for Milk and Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
2
Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
3
Milk and Milk Products Inspection, Center of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030184
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 20 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 2 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Single and Combined Mycotoxins)
With the growing diversity and complexity of diet, humans are at risk of simultaneous exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which are well-known contaminants in dairy and other agricultural products worldwide. The intestine represents the first barrier against external contaminants; however, evidence about the combined effect of AFB1 and AFM1 on intestinal integrity is lacking. In vivo, the serum biochemical parameters related to intestinal barrier function, ratio of villus height/crypt depth, and distribution pattern of claudin-1 and zonula occluden-1 were significantly affected in mice exposed to 0.3 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 and 3.0 mg/kg b.w. AFM1. In vitro results on differentiated Caco-2 cells showed that individual and combined AFB1 (0.5 and 4 μg/mL) and AFM1 (0.5 and 4 μg/mL) decreased cell viability and trans-epithelial electrical resistance values as well as increased paracellular permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AFM1 aggravated AFB1-induced compromised intestinal barrier, as demonstrated by the down-regulation of tight junction proteins and their redistribution, particularly internalization. Adding the inhibitor chlorpromazine illustrated that clathrin-mediated endocytosis partially contributed to the compromised intestinal integrity. Synergistic and additive effects were the predominant interactions, suggesting that these toxins are likely to have negative effects on human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; aflatoxin M1; intestinal epithelial barrier; endocytosis aflatoxin B1; aflatoxin M1; intestinal epithelial barrier; endocytosis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, Y.; Bao, X.; Meng, L.; Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N. Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin M1 Induce Compromised Intestinal Integrity through Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis. Toxins 2021, 13, 184. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030184

AMA Style

Gao Y, Bao X, Meng L, Liu H, Wang J, Zheng N. Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin M1 Induce Compromised Intestinal Integrity through Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis. Toxins. 2021; 13(3):184. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030184

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gao, Yanan; Bao, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lu; Liu, Huimin; Wang, Jiaqi; Zheng, Nan. 2021. "Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin M1 Induce Compromised Intestinal Integrity through Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis" Toxins 13, no. 3: 184. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030184

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop