Next Article in Journal
pH-Dependent Protein Binding Properties of Uremic Toxins In Vitro
Next Article in Special Issue
Bacillus cereus Induces Severe Infections in Preterm Neonates: Implication at the Hospital and Human Milk Bank Level
Previous Article in Journal
Mycotoxins—Biomonitoring and Human Exposure
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Food Poisoning Toxins of Bacillus cereus
Open AccessCommunication

Detection and Isolation of Emetic Bacillus cereus Toxin Cereulide by Reversed Phase Chromatography

1
Functional Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Chair of Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science, Technical University of Munich, Lise-Meitner-Straße 34, 85354 Freising, Germany
3
Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Neuherbergstraße 11, 80937 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020115
Received: 29 December 2020 / Revised: 30 January 2021 / Accepted: 1 February 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacillus cereus Toxins)
The emetic toxin cereulide is a 1.2 kDa dodecadepsipeptide produced by the food pathogen Bacillus cereus. As cereulide poses a serious health risk to humans, sensitive and specific detection, as well as toxin purification and quantification, methods are of utmost importance. Recently, a stable isotope dilution assay tandem mass spectrometry (SIDA–MS/MS)-based method has been described, and an method for the quantitation of cereulide in foods was established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, although this SIDA–MS/MS method is highly accurate, the sophisticated high-end MS equipment required for such measurements limits the method’s suitability for microbiological and molecular research. Thus, we aimed to develop a method for cereulide toxin detection and isolation using equipment commonly available in microbiological and biochemical research laboratories. Reproducible detection and relative quantification of cereulide was achieved, employing reversed phase chromatography (RPC). Chromatographic signals were cross validated by ultraperformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). The specificity of the RPC method was tested using a test panel of strains that included non-emetic representatives of the B. cereus group, emetic B. cereus strains, and cereulide-deficient isogenic mutants. In summary, the new method represents a robust, economical, and easily accessible research tool that complements existing diagnostics for the detection and quantification of cereulide. View Full-Text
Keywords: cereulide; reversed phase chromatography (RPC); Äkta™ pure; peptide quantification; emetic Bacillus cereus; toxin purification cereulide; reversed phase chromatography (RPC); Äkta™ pure; peptide quantification; emetic Bacillus cereus; toxin purification
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kalbhenn, E.M.; Bauer, T.; Stark, T.D.; Knüpfer, M.; Grass, G.; Ehling-Schulz, M. Detection and Isolation of Emetic Bacillus cereus Toxin Cereulide by Reversed Phase Chromatography. Toxins 2021, 13, 115. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020115

AMA Style

Kalbhenn EM, Bauer T, Stark TD, Knüpfer M, Grass G, Ehling-Schulz M. Detection and Isolation of Emetic Bacillus cereus Toxin Cereulide by Reversed Phase Chromatography. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):115. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020115

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalbhenn, Eva M.; Bauer, Tobias; Stark, Timo D.; Knüpfer, Mandy; Grass, Gregor; Ehling-Schulz, Monika. 2021. "Detection and Isolation of Emetic Bacillus cereus Toxin Cereulide by Reversed Phase Chromatography" Toxins 13, no. 2: 115. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020115

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop