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Article

A Two-Year Occurrence of Fusarium T-2 and HT-2 Toxin in Croatian Cereals Relative of the Regional Weather

1
Regional Veterinary Department Križevci, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Zakmandijeva 10, 48260 Križevci, Croatia
2
Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska Cesta 143, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Department of Food Technology, University North, Trg dr. Žarka Dolinara 1, 43000 Koprivnica, Croatia
4
Regional Veterinary Department Vinkovci, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Ul. Josipa Kozarca 24, 32100 Vinkovci, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010039
Received: 4 December 2020 / Revised: 27 December 2020 / Accepted: 6 January 2021 / Published: 7 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Relation to Climate Change)
To investigate into the T-2 and HT-2 toxin occurrence, 240 samples of unprocessed cereals (maize, wheat, barley, and oats) were sampled from different fields located in three Croatian regions during 2017–2018. In all samples, sum concentrations of T-2/HT-2 toxin were determined using the ELISA method, while the LC-MS/MS was used as a confirmatory method for both mycotoxins in positive samples (>LOD) and the establishment of T-2 over HT-2 toxin ratios. The results showed oats to be the most contaminated cereal, with T-2/HT-2 toxins detected in 70.0% of samples, followed by barley (40.9%), maize (26.8%) and wheat (19.2%), with the mean T-2/HT-2 ratio ranging from 1:2.7 in maize to 1:4.4 in oats. Sum T-2/HT-2 concentrations in two maize samples were higher than the indicative level recommended by the European Commission, necessitating subsequent investigations into the conditions under which these poorly investigated mycotoxins are produced. Statistically significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of T-2/HT-2 toxin were determined in oats throughout study regions as compared to those found in wheat, but not maize and barley, while the concentrations of these mycotoxins were related to the regional weather in Croatia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium mycotoxins; T-2 toxin; HT-2 toxin; Weather; Occurrence; LC-MS/MS Fusarium mycotoxins; T-2 toxin; HT-2 toxin; Weather; Occurrence; LC-MS/MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kiš, M.; Vulić, A.; Kudumija, N.; Šarkanj, B.; Jaki Tkalec, V.; Aladić, K.; Škrivanko, M.; Furmeg, S.; Pleadin, J. A Two-Year Occurrence of Fusarium T-2 and HT-2 Toxin in Croatian Cereals Relative of the Regional Weather. Toxins 2021, 13, 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010039

AMA Style

Kiš M, Vulić A, Kudumija N, Šarkanj B, Jaki Tkalec V, Aladić K, Škrivanko M, Furmeg S, Pleadin J. A Two-Year Occurrence of Fusarium T-2 and HT-2 Toxin in Croatian Cereals Relative of the Regional Weather. Toxins. 2021; 13(1):39. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010039

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kiš, Maja, Ana Vulić, Nina Kudumija, Bojan Šarkanj, Vesna Jaki Tkalec, Krunoslav Aladić, Mario Škrivanko, Sanja Furmeg, and Jelka Pleadin. 2021. "A Two-Year Occurrence of Fusarium T-2 and HT-2 Toxin in Croatian Cereals Relative of the Regional Weather" Toxins 13, no. 1: 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010039

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