Next Article in Journal
Assessing the Aflatoxins Mitigation Efficacy of Blueberry Pomace Biosorbent in Buffer, Gastrointestinal Fluids and Model Wine
Previous Article in Journal
Anthrax Edema and Lethal Toxins Differentially Target Human Lung and Blood Phagocytes
Open AccessArticle

Copepod Prey Selection and Grazing Efficiency Mediated by Chemical and Morphological Defensive Traits of Cyanobacteria

1
Laboratório de Ficologia, Museu Nacional, Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
2
Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen Research, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Center for Coastal Limnological and Marine Studies (CECLIMAR), Campus Litoral Norte, Universidade Federal de Rio Grande de Sul, 95625-000 Imbé, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(7), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070465
Received: 30 May 2020 / Revised: 13 July 2020 / Accepted: 17 July 2020 / Published: 21 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Phytoplankton anti-grazer traits control zooplankton grazing and are associated with harmful blooms. Yet, how morphological versus chemical phytoplankton defenses regulate zooplankton grazing is poorly understood. We compared zooplankton grazing and prey selection by contrasting morphological (filament length: short vs. long) and chemical (saxitoxin: STX- vs. STX+) traits of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium (Raphidiopsis) offered at different concentrations in mixed diets with an edible phytoplankton to a copepod grazer. The copepod selectively grazed on the edible prey (avoidance of cyanobacteria) even when the cyanobacterium was dominant. Avoidance of the cyanobacterium was weakest for the “short STX-” filaments and strongest for the other three strains. Hence, filament size had an effect on cyanobacterial avoidance only in the STX- treatments, while toxin production significantly increased cyanobacterial avoidance regardless of filament size. Moreover, cyanobacterial dominance reduced grazing on the edible prey by almost 50%. Results emphasize that the dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria such as Raphidiopsis can interfere with copepod grazing in a trait specific manner. For cyanobacteria, toxin production may be more effective than filament size as an anti-grazer defense against selectively grazing zooplankton such as copepods. Our results highlight how multiple phytoplankton defensive traits interact to regulate the producer-consumer link in plankton ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanotoxin; harmful algal bloom; neurotoxin; predator defense; functional trait cyanotoxin; harmful algal bloom; neurotoxin; predator defense; functional trait
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rangel, L.M.; Silva, L.H.S.; Faassen, E.J.; Lürling, M.; Ger, K.A. Copepod Prey Selection and Grazing Efficiency Mediated by Chemical and Morphological Defensive Traits of Cyanobacteria. Toxins 2020, 12, 465. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070465

AMA Style

Rangel LM, Silva LHS, Faassen EJ, Lürling M, Ger KA. Copepod Prey Selection and Grazing Efficiency Mediated by Chemical and Morphological Defensive Traits of Cyanobacteria. Toxins. 2020; 12(7):465. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070465

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rangel, Luciana M.; Silva, Lúcia H.S.; Faassen, Elisabeth J.; Lürling, Miquel; Ger, Kemal A. 2020. "Copepod Prey Selection and Grazing Efficiency Mediated by Chemical and Morphological Defensive Traits of Cyanobacteria" Toxins 12, no. 7: 465. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070465

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop