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Endothelial Damage, Inflammation and Immunity in Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Hematopathology, Pathology Department, Center for Biomedical Diagnosis (CDB), Hospital Clinic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
2
Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
3
Barcelona Endothelium Team, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
4
Arrels Centre Dental, 08912 Badalona, Spain
5
Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute, Hospital Clinic/University of Barcelona Campus, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
6
Nephrology Department. Hospital Clinic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060361
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 22 May 2020 / Accepted: 29 May 2020 / Published: 1 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Dysfunction in Uremia)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have an accelerated atherosclerosis, increased risk of thrombotic-ischemic complications, and excessive mortality rates when compared with the general population. There is also evidence of an endothelial damage in which the proinflammatory state, the enhanced oxidative stress, or the accumulation of toxins due to their reduced renal clearance in uremia play a role. Further, there is evidence that uremic endothelial cells are both involved in and victims of the activation of the innate immunity. Uremic endothelial cells produce danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPS), which by binding to specific pattern recognition receptors expressed in multiple cells, including endothelial cells, induce the expression of adhesion molecules, the production of proinflammatory cytokines and an enhanced production of reactive oxygen species in endothelial cells, which constitute a link between immunity and inflammation. The connection between endothelial damage, inflammation and defective immunity in uremia will be reviewed here. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease (CKD); uremia; inflammation; oxidative stress; innate immunity; endothelial cells; endothelial damage chronic kidney disease (CKD); uremia; inflammation; oxidative stress; innate immunity; endothelial cells; endothelial damage
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Diaz-Ricart, M.; Torramade-Moix, S.; Pascual, G.; Palomo, M.; Moreno-Castaño, A.B.; Martinez-Sanchez, J.; Vera, M.; Cases, A.; Escolar, G. Endothelial Damage, Inflammation and Immunity in Chronic Kidney Disease. Toxins 2020, 12, 361.

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