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Open AccessArticle

Limited Microcystin, Anatoxin and Cylindrospermopsin Production by Cyanobacteria from Microbial Mats in Cold Deserts

1
Institute of Environmental Biology, Faculty of Biology, Biological and Chemical Research Centre, University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw, Poland
2
Division of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46 ave., 81-378 Gdynia, Poland
3
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland
4
Institute of Botany, Plant Physiology and Genetics, Academy Science Republic of Tajikistan, 27 Karamov Str., Dushanbe 734017, Tajikistan
5
Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040244
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 27 March 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 11 April 2020
Toxic metabolites are produced by many cyanobacterial species. There are limited data on toxigenic benthic, mat-forming cyanobacteria, and information on toxic cyanobacteria from Central Asia is even more scarce. In the present study, we examined cyanobacterial diversity and community structure, the presence of genes involved in toxin production and the occurrence of cyanotoxins in cyanobacterial mats from small water bodies in a cold high-mountain desert of Eastern Pamir. Diversity was explored using amplicon-based sequencing targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, toxin potential using PCR-based methods (mcy, nda, ana, sxt), and toxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Molecular identification of cyanobacteria showed a high similarity of abundant taxa to Nostoc PCC-73102, Nostoc PCC-7524, Nodularia PCC-935 and Leptolyngbya CYN68. The PCRs revealed the presence of mcyE and/or ndaF genes in 11 samples and mcyD in six. The partial sequences of the mcyE gene showed high sequence similarity to Nostoc, Planktothrix and uncultured cyanobacteria. LC-MS/MS analysis identified six microcystin congeners in two samples and unknown peptides in one. These results suggest that, in this extreme environment, cyanobacteria do not commonly produce microcystins, anatoxins and cylindrospermopsins, despite the high diversity and widespread occurrence of potentially toxic taxa. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanotoxins; microbial mats; V3-V4 hypervariable region; 16S rRNA gene; mcyA; mcyE; mcyD; ndaF; anaC; sxtA; potential toxin producers cyanotoxins; microbial mats; V3-V4 hypervariable region; 16S rRNA gene; mcyA; mcyE; mcyD; ndaF; anaC; sxtA; potential toxin producers
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Khomutovska, N.; Sandzewicz, M.; Łach, Ł.; Suska-Malawska, M.; Chmielewska, M.; Mazur-Marzec, H.; Cegłowska, M.; Niyatbekov, T.; Wood, S.A.; Puddick, J.; Kwiatowski, J.; Jasser, I. Limited Microcystin, Anatoxin and Cylindrospermopsin Production by Cyanobacteria from Microbial Mats in Cold Deserts. Toxins 2020, 12, 244.

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