Next Article in Journal
Cardiac Remodeling in Chronic Kidney Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Hypervolemia-Induced Immune Disturbances Do Not Involve IL-1ß but IL-6 and IL-10 Activation in Haemodialysis Patients
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview

Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Fish Feed and Its Effects: A Review

1
Faculty of Sciences, Biology Department, University of Porto; Rua do Campo Alegre, Edifício FC4, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
2
Interdiciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030160
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 17 February 2020 / Accepted: 2 March 2020 / Published: 4 March 2020
Plant-based ingredients have been successfully replacing fishmeal in finished fish feeds. However, using crops in feeds results in an increased risk of contamination by fungi and mycotoxins and a higher incidence of mycotoxicosis in fish. This might decrease aquaculture’s productivity as mycotoxicosis generally result in decreased body weight, growth impairment and higher rates of disease and mortality in fish. Additionally, some mycotoxins might accumulate in the fish musculature. As such, fish consumption might become another way for mycotoxins to enter the human food chain, threatening food security and public health as mycotoxins are important genotoxins, carcinogens and immunosuppressors to humans. In this work we aim to provide a review on the most important mycotoxins found in crops and in finished fish feed, i.e., aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes and zearalenone. We present their effects on the health of fish and humans and their regulations in the European Union. Although work has been performed in mycotoxin research ever since the 1960s, a lot of information is still lacking regarding its effects. However, it is noticed that in order to use crops in aquafeed production, efforts should be made in order to monitor its contamination by mycotoxinogenic fungi and mycotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; mycotoxicosis; fungi; aquaculture; fish feed; fungi; bioaccumulation; toxicity mycotoxins; mycotoxicosis; fungi; aquaculture; fish feed; fungi; bioaccumulation; toxicity
MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira, M.; Vasconcelos, V. Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Fish Feed and Its Effects: A Review. Toxins 2020, 12, 160. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030160

AMA Style

Oliveira M, Vasconcelos V. Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Fish Feed and Its Effects: A Review. Toxins. 2020; 12(3):160. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030160

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oliveira, Mariana; Vasconcelos, Vitor. 2020. "Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Fish Feed and Its Effects: A Review" Toxins 12, no. 3: 160. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030160

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop