Next Article in Journal
Arthropod Venom Components and Their Potential Usage
Previous Article in Journal
Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Susceptible and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Wild, Captive and Laboratory Rats: Effect of Habitat on the Nasal S. aureus Population
Previous Article in Special Issue
Public Health Risk Associated with Botulism as Foodborne Zoonoses
Open AccessReview

Adult Intestinal Toxemia Botulism

Botulism Reference Service for Canada, Microbiology Research Division, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada
National Reference Centre for Botulism, Microbiological Foodborne Hazard Unit, Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, viale Regina Elena, 29900161 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 81;
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 22 January 2020 / Published: 24 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Foodborne Botulism Outbreaks)
Intoxication with botulinum neurotoxin can occur through various routes. Foodborne botulism results after consumption of food in which botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia (i.e., Clostridium botulinum or strains of Clostridium butyricum type E or Clostridium baratii type F) have replicated and produced botulinum neurotoxin. Infection of a wound with C. botulinum and in situ production of botulinum neurotoxin leads to wound botulism. Colonization of the intestine by neurotoxigenic clostridia, with consequent production of botulinum toxin in the intestine, leads to intestinal toxemia botulism. When this occurs in an infant, it is referred to as infant botulism, whereas in adults or children over 1 year of age, it is intestinal colonization botulism. Predisposing factors for intestinal colonization in children or adults include previous bowel or gastric surgery, anatomical bowel abnormalities, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, antimicrobial therapy, or foodborne botulism. Intestinal colonization botulism is confirmed by detection of botulinum toxin in serum and/or stool, or isolation of neurotoxigenic clostridia from the stool, without finding a toxic food. Shedding of neurotoxigenic clostridia in the stool may occur for a period of several weeks. Adult intestinal botulism occurs as isolated cases, and may go undiagnosed, contributing to the low reported incidence of this rare disease.
Keywords: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium butyricum; Clostridium baratii; botulism; botulinum toxin; intestinal toxemia Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium butyricum; Clostridium baratii; botulism; botulinum toxin; intestinal toxemia
MDPI and ACS Style

Harris, R.A.; Anniballi, F.; Austin, J.W. Adult Intestinal Toxemia Botulism. Toxins 2020, 12, 81.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop