Next Article in Journal
Ligand-Based Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamics, and MM-PBSA Calculations towards the Identification of Potential Novel Ricin Inhibitors
Next Article in Special Issue
The Anemonia sulcata Toxin BDS-I Protects Astrocytes Exposed to Aβ1–42 Oligomers by Restoring [Ca2+]i Transients and ER Ca2+ Signaling
Previous Article in Journal
Rumen and Serum Metabolomes in Response to Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Seed and Isoflavone Supplementation in Beef Steers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Phylogeny and Toxin Profile of Freshwater Pufferfish (Genus Pao) Collected from 2 Different Regions in Cambodia
Open AccessArticle

Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in Cephalothrix cf. simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) from the Sea of Japan (Peter the Great Gulf): Intrabody Distribution and Secretions

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 690041 Vladivostok, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12120745
Received: 15 November 2020 / Revised: 24 November 2020 / Accepted: 25 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Characterization of Marine Toxins)
Some nemertean species from the genus Cephalothrix accumulate tetrodotoxin (TTX) in extremely high concentrations. The current study is the first to provide high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) data on tetrodotoxin and its analogues (TTXs) profile and concentration in different regions and organs of Cephalothrix cf. simula, and its secretions produced in response to stimulation. Different specimens of C. cf. simula possessed 7–11 analogues, including nine previously found in this species and two new for nemerteans—4,9-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX and 1-hydroxy-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX. The study of the toxins’ distribution in different regions and organs of nemerteans revealed the same qualitative composition of TTXs throughout the body but differences in the total concentration of the toxins. The total concentration of TTXs was highest in the anterior region of the body and decreased towards the posterior; the ratio of the analogues also differed between regions. The data obtained suggest a pathway of TTXs uptake in C. cf. simula and the role of toxins in the life activity of nemerteans. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; tetrodotoxin analogues; TTX; TTX distribution; Nemertea; Cephalothrix; HPLC–MS/MS tetrodotoxin; tetrodotoxin analogues; TTX; TTX distribution; Nemertea; Cephalothrix; HPLC–MS/MS
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vlasenko, A.E.; Magarlamov, T.Y.. Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in Cephalothrix cf. simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) from the Sea of Japan (Peter the Great Gulf): Intrabody Distribution and Secretions. Toxins 2020, 12, 745.

AMA Style

Vlasenko AE, Magarlamov TY. Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in Cephalothrix cf. simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) from the Sea of Japan (Peter the Great Gulf): Intrabody Distribution and Secretions. Toxins. 2020; 12(12):745.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vlasenko, Anna E.; Magarlamov, Timur Y.. 2020. "Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in Cephalothrix cf. simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) from the Sea of Japan (Peter the Great Gulf): Intrabody Distribution and Secretions" Toxins 12, no. 12: 745.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop