Botulinum toxin type B (BoNT/B) has been recommended as an alternative for patients who have become resistant to botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A). This study aimed to compare the clinical effect, within a patient, of four injections with low doses of rimabotulinumtoxinB with the effect of the preceding abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNT/A) injections. In 17 patients with cervical dystonia (CD) who had become resistant to aboBoNT/A, the clinical effect of the first four rimabotulinumtoxinB (rimaBoNT/B) injections was compared to the effect of the first four aboBoNT/A injections using a global assessment scale and the TSUI score. After the first two BoNT/B injections, all 17 patients responded well and to a similar extent as to the first two BoNT/A injections, but with more side effects such as dry mouth and constipation. After the next BoNT/B injection, the improvement started to decline. The response to the fourth BoNT/B injection was significant (p
< 0.048) lower than the fourth BoNT/A injection. Only three patients developed a complete secondary treatment failure (CSTF) and five patients a partial secondary treatment failure (PSTF) after four BoNT/B injections. In nine patients, the usual response persisted. With the use of low rimaBoNT/B doses, the induction of CSTF and PSTF to BoNT/B could not be avoided but was delayed in comparison to the use of higher doses. In contrast to aboBoNT/A injections, PSTF and CSTF occurred much earlier, although low doses of rimaBoNT/B had been applied.
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