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Open AccessArticle

Prevalent Human Gut Bacteria Hydrolyse and Metabolise Important Food-Derived Mycotoxins and Masked Mycotoxins

Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210-9501, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 654;
Received: 21 September 2020 / Revised: 6 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mutual Interaction between Mycotoxins and Gut Microbiome)
Mycotoxins are important food contaminants that commonly co-occur with modified mycotoxins such as mycotoxin-glucosides in contaminated cereal grains. These masked mycotoxins are less toxic, but their breakdown and release of unconjugated mycotoxins has been shown by mixed gut microbiota of humans and animals. The role of different bacteria in hydrolysing mycotoxin-glucosides is unknown, and this study therefore investigated fourteen strains of human gut bacteria for their ability to break down masked mycotoxins. Individual bacterial strains were incubated anaerobically with masked mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside, DON-Glc; nivalenol-3-β-glucoside, NIV-Glc; HT-2-β-glucoside, HT-2-Glc; diacetoxyscirpenol-α-glucoside, DAS-Glc), or unconjugated mycotoxins (DON, NIV, HT-2, T-2, and DAS) for up to 48 h. Bacterial growth, hydrolysis of mycotoxin-glucosides and further metabolism of mycotoxins were assessed. We found no impact of any mycotoxin on bacterial growth. We have demonstrated that Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Roseburia intestinalis and Eubacterium rectale hydrolyse DON-Glc, HT-2 Glc, and NIV-Glc efficiently and have confirmed this activity in Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (DON-Glc only). Prevotella copri and B. fibrisolvens efficiently de-acetylated T-2 and DAS, but none of the bacteria were capable of de-epoxydation or hydrolysis of α-glucosides. In summary we have identified key bacteria involved in hydrolysing mycotoxin-glucosides and de-acetylating type A trichothecenes in the human gut. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin-glucosides; trichothecenes; gut microbiota; microbiome; release; de-acetylation mycotoxin-glucosides; trichothecenes; gut microbiota; microbiome; release; de-acetylation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Daud, N.; Currie, V.; Duncan, G.; Farquharson, F.; Yoshinari, T.; Louis, P.; Gratz, S.W. Prevalent Human Gut Bacteria Hydrolyse and Metabolise Important Food-Derived Mycotoxins and Masked Mycotoxins. Toxins 2020, 12, 654.

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