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Open AccessArticle

Solanum nigrum Fruit Extract Increases Toxicity of Fenitrothion—A Synthetic Insecticide, in the Mealworm Beetle Tenebrio molitor Larvae

1
Department of Animal Physiology and Development, Institute of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, ul. Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 6, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Sciences, University of Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
3
Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2092, South Africa
4
Electron and Confocal Microscope Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, ul. Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 6, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100612
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 16 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification and Functional Characterization of Plant Toxins)
Synthetic insecticides are widely used for crop protection both in the fields and in the food stored facilities. Due to their toxicity, and assumptions of Integrated Pest Management, we conducted two independent experiments, where we studied the influence of Solanum nigrum unripe fruit extract on the toxicity of an organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion. In the first variant of the experiment, Tenebrio molitor larvae were fed with blended fenitrothion (LC50) and the extract in four concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%) in ratio 1:1 for 3 days. In the second variant, a two-day application of fenitrothion (LC40) was preceded by a one-day extract treatment. The first variant did not show any increase in lethality compared to fenitrothion; however, ultrastructure observations exhibited swollen endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes in the midgut and nuclear and cellular membranes in the fat body, after application of blended fenitrothion and extract. An increased amount of heterochromatin in the fat body was observed, too. In the second variant, pre-treatment of the extract increased the lethality of larvae, decreased the level of glycogen and lipids in the fat body and disrupted integrity of midgut cellular membranes. S. nigrum extract, applied prior to fenitrothion treatment can be a factor increasing fenitrothion toxicity in T. molitor larvae. Thus, this strategy may lead to decreased emission of synthetic insecticides to the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Solanum nigrum extract; fenitrothion; Tenebrio molitor; beetles; transmission electron microscopy; glycogen; protein; lipid; fat body; midgut Solanum nigrum extract; fenitrothion; Tenebrio molitor; beetles; transmission electron microscopy; glycogen; protein; lipid; fat body; midgut
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spochacz, M.; Szymczak, M.; Chowański, S.; Bufo, S.A.; Adamski, Z. Solanum nigrum Fruit Extract Increases Toxicity of Fenitrothion—A Synthetic Insecticide, in the Mealworm Beetle Tenebrio molitor Larvae. Toxins 2020, 12, 612. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100612

AMA Style

Spochacz M, Szymczak M, Chowański S, Bufo SA, Adamski Z. Solanum nigrum Fruit Extract Increases Toxicity of Fenitrothion—A Synthetic Insecticide, in the Mealworm Beetle Tenebrio molitor Larvae. Toxins. 2020; 12(10):612. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100612

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spochacz, Marta; Szymczak, Monika; Chowański, Szymon; Bufo, Sabino A.; Adamski, Zbigniew. 2020. "Solanum nigrum Fruit Extract Increases Toxicity of Fenitrothion—A Synthetic Insecticide, in the Mealworm Beetle Tenebrio molitor Larvae" Toxins 12, no. 10: 612. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100612

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