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Open AccessArticle

The Novel Clostridial Neurotoxin Produced by Strain IBCA10-7060 Is Immunologically Equivalent to BoNT/HA

1
Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Ave, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
2
Infant Botulism Treatment and Prevention Program, Division of Communicable Disease Control, Center for Infectious Diseases, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
3
Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 7 December 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 20 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
Background: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) comprise seven agreed-on serotypes, A through G. In 2014, a novel chimeric neurotoxin produced by clostridial strain IBCA10-7060 was reported as BoNT/H, with subsequent names of BoNT/FA or BoNT/HA based on sequence homology of the N-terminus to BoNT/F, the C-terminus to BoNT/A and neutralization studies. The purpose of this study was to define the immunologic identity of the novel BoNT. Methods: monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the novel BoNT/H N-terminus were generated by antibody repertoire cloning and yeast display after immunization with BoNT/H LC-HN or BoNT/F LC-HN. Results: 21 unique BoNT/H LC-HN mAbs were obtained; 15 from the BoNT/H LC-HN immunized library (KD 0.78 nM to 182 nM) and six from the BoNT/F-immunized libraries (KD 20.5 nM to 1490 nM). A total of 15 of 21 mAbs also bound catalytically inactive BoNT/H holotoxin. The mAbs bound nine non-overlapping epitopes on the BoNT/H LC-HN. None of the mAbs showed binding to BoNT serotypes A-G, nor any of the seven subtypes of BoNT/F, except for one mAb that weakly bound BoNT/F5. Conclusions: The results, combined with the chimeric structure and neutralization by anti-A, but not anti-F antitoxin indicate that immunologically the novel BoNT is BoNT/HA. This determination has significant implications for existing countermeasures and potential vulnerabilities. View Full-Text
Keywords: monoclonal antibodies; botulinum neurotoxin; botulism; Clostridium botulinum; botulinum neurotoxin HA; BoNT/HA monoclonal antibodies; botulinum neurotoxin; botulism; Clostridium botulinum; botulinum neurotoxin HA; BoNT/HA
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Fan, Y.; Barash, J.R.; Conrad, F.; Lou, J.; Tam, C.; Cheng, L.W.; Arnon, S.S.; Marks, J.D. The Novel Clostridial Neurotoxin Produced by Strain IBCA10-7060 Is Immunologically Equivalent to BoNT/HA. Toxins 2020, 12, 9.

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