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Open AccessReview

The Diversity of Cyanobacterial Toxins on Structural Characterization, Distribution and Identification: A Systematic Review

1
College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, St Mary’s University, San Antonio, TX 78228, USA
3
College of Life Sciences, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(9), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11090530
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 12 September 2019
The widespread distribution of cyanobacteria in the aquatic environment is increasing the risk of water pollution caused by cyanotoxins, which poses a serious threat to human health. However, the structural characterization, distribution and identification techniques of cyanotoxins have not been comprehensively reviewed in previous studies. This paper aims to elaborate the existing information systematically on the diversity of cyanotoxins to identify valuable research avenues. According to the chemical structure, cyanotoxins are mainly classified into cyclic peptides, alkaloids, lipopeptides, nonprotein amino acids and lipoglycans. In terms of global distribution, the amount of cyanotoxins are unbalanced in different areas. The diversity of cyanotoxins is more obviously found in many developed countries than that in undeveloped countries. Moreover, the threat of cyanotoxins has promoted the development of identification and detection technology. Many emerging methods have been developed to detect cyanotoxins in the environment. This communication provides a comprehensive review of the diversity of cyanotoxins, and the detection and identification technology was discussed. This detailed information will be a valuable resource for identifying the various types of cyanotoxins which threaten the environment of different areas. The ability to accurately identify specific cyanotoxins is an obvious and essential aspect of cyanobacterial research. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacterial toxins; diversity; structural characterization; distribution; identification cyanobacterial toxins; diversity; structural characterization; distribution; identification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Du, X.; Liu, H.; Yuan, L.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Wang, R.; Chen, X.; Losiewicz, M.D.; Guo, H.; Zhang, H. The Diversity of Cyanobacterial Toxins on Structural Characterization, Distribution and Identification: A Systematic Review. Toxins 2019, 11, 530.

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