Mycotoxins are ubiquitous and unavoidable harmful fungal products with the ability to cause disease in both animals and humans, and are found in almost all types of foods, with a greater prevalence in hot humid environments. These mycotoxins vary greatly in structure and biochemical effects; therefore, by better understanding the toxicological and pathological aspects of mycotoxins, we can be better equipped to fight the diseases, as well as the biological and economic devastations, they induce. Multiple studies point to the association between a recent increase in male infertility and the increased occurrence of these mycotoxins in the environment. Furthermore, understanding how mycotoxins may induce an accumulation of epimutations during parental lifetimes can shed light on their implications with respect to fertility and reproductive efficiency. By acknowledging the diversity of mycotoxin molecular function and mode of action, this review aims to address the current limited knowledge on the effects of these chemicals on spermatogenesis and the various endocrine and epigenetics patterns associated with their disruptions.
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