Next Article in Journal
Sub-Chronic Microcystin-LR Liver Toxicity in Preexisting Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Rats
Previous Article in Journal
Analgesic Effect of Melittin on Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Tannic Acid Induces the Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Porcine Intestinal IPEC-J2 Cells

Laboratory of Animal Clinical Toxicology, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Hunan Collaborative Innovation Center of Animal Production Safety, Changsha 410128, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2019, 11(7), 397;
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Toxins)
PDF [27246 KB, uploaded 9 July 2019]


The presence of tannic acid (TA), which is widely distributed in plants, limits the utilization of non-grain feed. Illustrating the toxicity mechanism of TA in animals is important for preventing poisoning and for clinical development of TA. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects and possible action mechanism of TA in porcine intestinal IPEC-J2 cells, as well as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle. We investigated the toxic effects of TA in IPEC-J2 cells combining the analysis of TA-induced apoptotic responses and effect on the cell cycle. The results revealed that TA is highly toxic to IPEC-J2 cells. The stress-inducible factors reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine were increased in response to TA. Furthermore, TA suppressed mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced adenosine triphosphate production, and adversely affected B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein, caspase-9, caspase-3, cytochrome c, cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinases, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, and P53 expression in a dose-dependent manner. We suggest that TA induces the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and S phase arrest in IPEC-J2 cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-nutritional factor; apoptosis; IPEC-J2 cell line; tannic acid anti-nutritional factor; apoptosis; IPEC-J2 cell line; tannic acid

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.; Xiao, H.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, S.; Yuan, Z.; Wu, J.; Wen, L. Tannic Acid Induces the Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Porcine Intestinal IPEC-J2 Cells. Toxins 2019, 11, 397.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top