Next Article in Journal
An Eye on Staphylococcus aureus Toxins: Roles in Ocular Damage and Inflammation
Next Article in Special Issue
Chemical Synthesis, Proper Folding, Nav Channel Selectivity Profile and Analgesic Properties of the Spider Peptide Phlotoxin 1
Previous Article in Journal
Membrane Permeabilization by Pore-Forming RTX Toxins: What Kind of Lesions Do These Toxins Form?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dissecting Toxicity: The Venom Gland Transcriptome and the Venom Proteome of the Highly Venomous Scorpion Centruroides limpidus (Karsch, 1879)
Open AccessReview

Brown Spider (Loxosceles) Venom Toxins as Potential Biotools for the Development of Novel Therapeutics

Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba 81531-970, PR, Brazil
Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte 31270-901, MG, Brazil
Centro Multiusuário de Inovação Biomolecular, Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), São José do Rio Preto 15054-000, SP, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 355;
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Venom Components and Their Potential Usage)
PDF [2162 KB, uploaded 19 June 2019]


Brown spider envenomation results in dermonecrosis with gravitational spreading characterized by a marked inflammatory reaction and with lower prevalence of systemic manifestations such as renal failure and hematological disturbances. Several toxins make up the venom of these species, and they are mainly peptides and proteins ranging from 5–40 kDa. The venoms have three major families of toxins: phospholipases-D, astacin-like metalloproteases, and the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) peptides. Serine proteases, serpins, hyaluronidases, venom allergens, and a translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) are also present. Toxins hold essential biological properties that enable interactions with a range of distinct molecular targets. Therefore, the application of toxins as research tools and clinical products motivates repurposing their uses of interest. This review aims to discuss possibilities for brown spider venom toxins as putative models for designing molecules likely for therapeutics based on the status quo of brown spider venoms. Herein, we explore new possibilities for the venom components in the context of their biochemical and biological features, likewise their cellular targets, three-dimensional structures, and mechanisms of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: brown spider; venom; Loxosceles; toxins; biotools; drug targets; novel therapeutics brown spider; venom; Loxosceles; toxins; biotools; drug targets; novel therapeutics

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chaves-Moreira, D.; Matsubara, F.H.; Schemczssen-Graeff, Z.; De Bona, E.; Heidemann, V.R.; Guerra-Duarte, C.; Gremski, L.H.; Chávez-Olórtegui, C.; Senff-Ribeiro, A.; Chaim, O.M.; Arni, R.K.; Veiga, S.S. Brown Spider (Loxosceles) Venom Toxins as Potential Biotools for the Development of Novel Therapeutics. Toxins 2019, 11, 355.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top