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Repertoire of the Bacillus thuringiensis Virulence Factors Unrelated to Major Classes of Protein Toxins and Its Role in Specificity of Host-Pathogen Interactions

1
Laboratory for Proteomics of Supra-Organismal Systems, All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology (ARRIAM), St. Petersburg 196608, Russia
2
Faculty of Biology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060347
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive soil bacteria that infects invertebrates, predominantly of Arthropoda phylum. Due to its immense host range Bt has become a leading producer of biopesticides applied both in biotechnology and agriculture. Cytotoxic effect of Bt, as well as its host specificity, are commonly attributed either to proteinaceous crystal parasporal toxins (Cry and Cyt) produced by bacteria in a stationary phase or to soluble toxins of Vip and Sip families secreted by vegetative cells. At the same time, numerous non-toxin virulence factors of Bt have been discovered, including metalloproteases, chitinases, aminopolyol antibiotics and nucleotide-mimicking moieties. These agents act at each stage of the B. thuringiensis invasion and contribute to cytotoxic properties of Bt strains enhancing toxin activity, ensuring host immune response evasion and participating in extracellular matrix degeneration. In this review we attempt to classify Bt virulence factors unrelated to major groups of protein toxins and discuss their putative role in the establishment of Bt specificity to various groups of insects. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt; virulence; specificity; toxin; insect; metalloprotease; chitinase; host; pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt; virulence; specificity; toxin; insect; metalloprotease; chitinase; host; pathogen
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Malovichko, Y.V.; Nizhnikov, A.A.; Antonets, K.S. Repertoire of the Bacillus thuringiensis Virulence Factors Unrelated to Major Classes of Protein Toxins and Its Role in Specificity of Host-Pathogen Interactions. Toxins 2019, 11, 347.

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